Borski region: is located in the far east of the country and includes four municipalities: Bor, Majdanpek, Negotin, Kladovo. The Danube River had a significant impact on climate and soil. This area was inhabited and attractive even before the Romans came to this area.
Negotinska krajina today is geographically and generally identified with the Municipality of Negotin, which extends to 1,089 sq km. Krajina is located on the border between Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. Plain, known under the name Negotinska plain are between Timok and the Danube to mountainous arc Vidrovac-Badnjevo-Bratujevac. Above this is a flat plateau to the mountains Deli Jovan and Stol, that this whole area naturally separated from the central and western Serbia. For this reason, and because of the relatively low altitude, the city itself is about 45 meters above sea level. Geographical coordinates:
latitude: 44 ° 13’ 0“ – north of
latitude 22 ° 31’ 60“ – east
Negotin is located in a plain surrounded by mountain ranges (Miroč, Crni Vrh and Deli Jovan) and open space to the east and south sides of what causes very specific climate Negotina. Geographic location and characteristics of relief conditional on certain specific characteristics in terms of climate municipality Negotin. In fact, there are significant differences between the maximum and minimum temperature, which is characteristic of the continental climate. Average maximum temperature in July (28,5˚C) and the mean minimum in January (-4.5˚C). Absolutely temperature fluctuation is 69.7˚C. According to measurements in Negotin, dominate the western and northwestern winds.The characteristics of this area, as a result of geological structure, tectonic and exogenous processes can be expressed altitude areas and exposure, as well as indicators relevant to the evaluation of the use ofsoil. According to altitude zones, terrain can be roughly divided into three parts: areas with altitudes below 300m. These are the amount of prevailing in this region (more than 70%, or 785km2); zone with 300-800m (297km2, which is about 27%); zones with the heights through 800m (only about 0.6% or 7km2). In terms of exposure, the plain areas prevail without specific exposure, as they are exposed to the southeast.
Negotinska krajina is one of the most famous wine-growing terrain in the RS. In Krajina dominate the indigenous varieties such as Bagrina, Drenak, Začinak, Bela i Crna tamjanika i Prokupac but in this field, cultivating grape vines with the finest international varieties. Wines from this terroir attract foreign tourists coming from different parts of Europe and in places Rajac, Rogljevo, Smedovac raise its vineyards and wineries. This region is part of our research and on it have been identified some of the autochthonous grape varieties.
Braničevski i Podunavski region is in the central Eastern Serbia. The total area is 5,107 km2 which is 5.8% of the territory of Serbia. Region consists of two administrative districts: Braničevo and Podunavlje. County Braničevo containing 1 city – Požarevac (which also has a separate administrative territory – of municipality Kostolac) and 7 municipalities: Veliko Gradište, Golubac, Kučevo, Žabari, Petrovac, Malo Crniće and Podunavski containing 1 city – Smederevo and 2 municipalities: Smederevska Palanka and Velika Plana. At the regional level, there are a total of 248 localities. Geografically, the region is divided into east hilly and mountainous terrain (Homoljsko-Kučajske montains) and the central-western part, surrounded by rivers: Danube in the north, and its tributaries, Velika Morava, Pek and Mlava, from south. Rivers irrigate the open plains and make them more fertile. The largest plain is Stig. Total 61% of the territory is characterized by high quality soil types. Depending on the exact geographical location, in Braničevsko-Danube region there are two types of climate: mountain air in its eastern continental climate, and in the central-west. In west-central part of the region, the land received 650mm of rainfall a year. The greatest amount of precipitation in May (72mm) and June (86mm), and the lowest in February (38mm). The entire region is windy. Most often, winds blow from the southwest – „košava“, or occasionally blow and northwest winds. More than 170 days a year is windy. Region fits in with the national average of 62-91 days of sunshine a year. On the left side of the river is Mlava is Mlava-Oreovačko vineyard localities: Viteževo, Oreovica, Aleksandrovac, Mirijevo, Žabari. Podunavski region is also rich in vineyards and fruit from areas: Golobok, Udovice, Kolari, Drugovac, Umčari around the town of Smederevo. The mentioned localities were recorded over 20 autochthonous varieties of fruits and grape vines.
Banat region is part of the Pannonian Plain, and therefore represents a plain area. In it, alluvial levels, wood terraces, woody plains, sandstones and smaller parts of the mountain are represented by relief units. Apart from Serbia, Banat extends over part of the territory of Romania. It is divided into three parts: northern, central and southern Banat. When it comes to the Serbian part of Banat, the highest parts of the relief are the low Vršac mountains, which dominate the southern Banat. The highest peak is Gudurica, 641 m high, which is also the highest point in Vojvodina. This mountain massif occupies an area of about 170 km2. The lower relief continents from the mountains are sand dunes, of which in the Serbian part of Banat in the southeast there is the Banat sandstone (Deliblatska) and covers a surface of about 300 km2, it extends in the direction south-northwest. It is the largest sandy space in Europe, stabilized and covered with vegetation. On its surface there are dunes, intercolation depressions, exhaustion and garmades. Since it was completely defiled, in 1815 it joined afforestation in order to prevent sand blasting, i.e. its devastation. Mainly woody plants are planted, and the sand is now mostly connected. The woody plain surrounding Deliblato sands is called Southern Banat. Its width is wide, its width is in the northwest. The Banat wood terrace is in many places dotted with the Banat rivers and engraved narrow or wider alluvial levels, with a lot of relief remains of earlier flows. Some of them are turned into sweeties. The lowest parts of the relief area are alluvial. In this part of Banat there is also the lowest point of Vojvodina – the mouth of the river Nera in the Danube;
Air temperature – one of the most important climatic elements. values of mean monthly air temperatures indicate that the hottest month is July with an average medium-term temperature of 21.4 °C, while the coldest January is -1.5 °C. The wind is also a significant climatic element that contributes to evaporation (evaporation of moisture from) the soil. The most important wind in Banat is “košava”. It is formed in such a way that the cold air from the Russian lowland moves towards the west and encounters the mountain barrier of the carpathian landscape. as it is very heavy air, descends into the gorge and mountain passes, breaks through to the Djerdap, where a significant amount of air masses is moving, which when they leave it create a stormy and frigid wind. It brings dry and clear weather. Its average speed ranges from 18-40 km / h, ie. 5-10 m / s, however in extreme cases it reaches a speed of up to 50 m / s. It has a distinct frequency (for example, in Zrenjanin 220 ‰, in Vršac 216 ‰). According to Boforov’s scale, it has an intensity of 2.7.
Air humidity – the average relative humidity value is 75%.Cloudiness – affects the intensity of the sun’s radiation. For agrarian production, it is especially important in the spring and autumn months. Protects the land from stronger radiation. Move with dozens. During the summer, cloudiness is 4.3 tenths; during autumn 5.2 tenths; during the spring of 5.7 tenths; and during the winter 6.9 tenths. Mean annual cloudiness is 5.5 tenths. Precipitation – an extremely important climatic element for life, primarily plants, and in a wider sense, for people’s lives and their business. Since the Pannonian Plain is surrounded by surrounding mountain ranges on all sides, specific local and regional conditions for the precipitation of the sediment have been formed. Banat gets the least precipitation. On Vršac precipitation 900mm precipitation is excreted annually. The general characteristic of the rain regime is that the unusual change in the amount of precipitation for the same months and places in various years, and in the same year and the same month, various places. By the spring of spring and early summer, the cyclone flows from Skagerak show a damp weather and a lot of rain that are extremely important for vegetation. During the winter, with the depletion of the anticyclone and the formation of cyclones in the Bishkek, Genoa and Venetian bays, the air currents are moving across Vojvodina, bringing cloudy, rainy and short-lived warm weather, which is quickly replaced by cold and snowy weather. During the summer the rains are flat. Snow is a regular phenomenon. the first snow occurs between December 1 and December 16, and is kept until February 15, March 16th. The appearance of the city, which is regularly excreted from cumulonimbus, occurs on average 1-2 days a year, usually at the end of spring and early summer, and causes severe damage to agricultural crops.
Jaša Tomić – the city with the most continental climate in Serbia, is located on the border of Serbian Banat and Romania, ie on the border of Serbia with Romania.Piatra Rošie (211m high) and Šumingu (200m).
On the creation of the land in Banat, the absolute and complex influence had a climate, i.e. directly organic world. Chernozem was created on the above-mentioned wood. It was formed in a boreal, dry warm period, when there was a lush steppe vegetation (which is now fragmentarily possible in Deliblatska peščara). The geological composition or parent substrate is an extremely important factor in soil formation. Quaternary structures, whose basis – wood, overgrown wood, sand and recent sludge, as well as a part of tertiary structures (gravel and sand, line, lapori ..), played an important role. Wood, as a sedimentary wall, contains a large amount of lime. Relief is of minor importance for pedogenesis. Water, on the other hand, is a very important pedogenetic factor. It plays a decisive role in the process of creating a landmark. High levels of water lead to deterioration and significantly affect the deterioration of chemical and physical properties. Surface currents (Danube, Tisa, Tamis, Begej) also have a great influence on the soil genesis, changing (in particular in Holocene) their direction of swelling, causing frequent floods and leaving many dead, ponds and swamps.
The largest area of Banat is occupied by: Chernozem and meadowblack soils. In addition to them, there are also rythic soils (“crnice” and “smonice”), alluvial soils, salty soils (“solonjec” and “solonček”) and others.
Locations with intensive fruit and vineyard production are: Bela Crkva, Zrenjanin, Vršac, while in addition to the mentioned sites, individual trees or chicots of old autochthonous varieties can be found in almost entire Banat on courtyards and small orchards and vineyards.